In Partnership with 

 GEN TEFL

Updated as of 1 May 2019

PAPER PRESENTATION

Anxiety in Delivering Technical Oral Presentation Among Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang Students
Ms. Sitti Sahriana
Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang

In improving speaking skill as one of the skills in English, students of Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang has to do an oral presentation talking about their engineering stuffs. All Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang students study English as a foreign language and the language has been learnt since primary school onwards. Though the students have a long engagement with English, still they experience anxiety when engaged in oral presentation. This study aims to seek the level of anxiety of Bachelor of Applied Science in Mechatronics and Manufactures students. The participants in this study are the second year students of Mechanical Department of Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang. A questionnaire made by McCroskey (1992) Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA) was given to 46 students in order to get data on their feelings towards giving a technical oral presentation. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 and presented in form of descriptive statistics which include percentages and mean of the result of the questionnaire.

 

Assessment of textbooks in enhancing language learners’ pragmatic competence: The case of requests
Ms. Yuehong Gao
Shantou University


Pragmatics has been gaining in popularity in many English language learning programs worldwide. Studies evaluating the representation of speech acts in textbooks, however, constantly report insufficient input and unrealistic conventions (e.g., Barron, 2016; Meihami & Khanlarzadeh, 2015). Meanwhile, little research has been conducted to examine the application of using a combination of different ELT textbooks and its impact on the teaching and learning of pragmatics. To this end, this study aims to analyze and evaluate how the speech act of request is presented in eight published ELT textbooks of four different language proficiency levels in a private language institution based in central London. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are employed in this paper. Detailed analysis focuses on the adequacy and quality of pragmatic content provided to develop learners’ pragmatic competence. This paper also offers some pedagogical implications for language instructors and course developers on the integrative and creative use of multiple ELT textbook series in a course with consecutive levels for learners to acquire their pragmatic competence progressively. Findings show that such flexible combination of textbooks opens up the possibility to optimize pragmatics teaching by carefully integrating materials on the basis of what the textbooks can offer currently.

 
Attitude in English and Competence of Technical College Students in Thailand
Miss Chinebeth Borja, PhD(g)
King Mongkut’s University of Technology Ladkrabang

This study was conducted at IRPC Technological College, Thailand. The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) The attitude of students towards English; (2) The attitude of students towards teaching English; (3) The competence level of their English. The participants were asked to answer and complete the survey questionnaires that would reveal their positive and negative attitudes towards English. The findings revealed that the students are neutral towards learning English and favorable on how English is taught; their levels of attitude are influenced by their major and length of study but not by their age and gender; their basic competence in English is determined by their major but not by their age, gender and length of study; and their attitude towards English learning is not significantly related to their English competence. The researcher provided the recommendations for language teachers and the management group to develop a program that would encourage and motivate students to improve in their studies.

 
Authentic Language Learning Outside the Classroom
Mr. Matthew Jellick
Southern University of Science and Technology

With the essentials of language acquisition established within a traditional classroom setting, it is important to translate those fundamentals outside, through authentic learning practices. From English Corners to Book Clubs, and from Speaking Clubs to English Film Clubs, the possibilities are limitless as they pertain to low-affective filter platforms with which to encourage language development. Student-led through round-table discussions, in many instances, the teacher simply acts as a facilitator of discussion; a mentor who encourages student talk and shies away from a direct leadership role. Placing an emphasis on the social-cultural realities of the students, these genuine contexts reflect the world in which they live, giving credence to their identities not only as students, but as people. This presentation will highlight differing examples, how to implement them, and the varied learning outcomes which take place, far from prescribed curriculum, focusing instead on authentic practices. The four skill sets of Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking are all addressed, highlighting how to encourage English language development through non-traditional approaches. The presenter has developed and utilized this pedagogy on four different continents, incorporating differing cultural contexts and is excited to share with a diverse group of English language educators.


Capstone Ninja- Final Year Project Writing Support App
Dr. Christelle Davis
The Chinese University of Hong Kong

The Capstone Ninja is a tool that facilitates communication, project management and language support for undergraduate students from various disciplines in Hong Kong. Every undergraduate student in Hong Kong is required to prepare a Capstone Project or Final Year Project in the form of a lengthy English text, a daunting and confusing task for many. The project team, comprised of staff from five Hong Kong universities, gathered data from student writing samples as well as interviewed faculty academics in regards to the issues that they perceived in their students’ work to create a mobile app that will serve both students and supervisors. Each version of the app provides language support in the form of tips, sample texts and quizzes tailor-made for a specific discipline. The app also features a project management tool that includes notifications for upcoming deadlines and a to-do list that both the supervisor and student can access. Furthermore, the app allows for the student and supervisor to ‘chat’ with each other online. This poster will describe the project’s objectives and progress to date as well as providing an overview of the major features of the app.

 
Classroom Management Software: How ESL Students can use Technology in Peace
Mr. Christopher Freeman
Gulf University of Science and Technology

As we live in an increasingly connected world, technology is an essential part of our lives.  This is also true for the classroom, where reading, writing, listening, and vocabulary teaching is often done on students’ computers or smart devices.  However, with these technological tools come challenges, ranging from distractions on student devices from social media to cheating and plagiarism.  This workshop will showcase some classroom management software tools to combat and control some of the issues that go along with using technology in the classroom.  Netsupport, Veyon and Lanschool Lite are three classroom management tools that allow the teacher to see student screens, block certain websites, and keep students on task with their learning.  These tools will be demonstrated in an interactive environment and the pros and cons will be weighed in the workshop.   

Claims of Lack of Knowledge Among Japanese Learners of English During Task-Based Discussions for Language Learning
Dr. David Aline and Dr. Yuri Hosoda
Kanagawa University

This presentation examines the formulaic phrases deployed by Japanese learners of English in peer discussions, demonstrating how they express their lack of content and linguistic knowledge. Specifically, we explicate students' use of I don't know and its equivalent in Japanese, wakannai. We show, through conversation analysis, L2 speakers' use of I don't know and wakannai in classroom interaction. Over 210 hours of L2 interaction were video-recorded during small-group discussions in English language classes at a Japanese university. The groups discussed various topics for the most part in English, but contingently moving into Japanese, their common L1. It was found that participants use first-positioned I don't know and wakannai to achieve differential actions. I don't know is deployed for downgrading argument positions following peer displays of disaffiliation as revealed through silences and minimal responses. The alternative, wakannai, is regularly employed to signify insufficient knowledge regarding linguistic or content matter, while in mundane conversation in Japanese it can, similar to I don't know in English, perform a wider range of actions. The findings show how students with multiple languages at hand may enact some pragmatic actions concerning their positions through a certain language while employing another language for accomplishing alternate actions.

 
Deployment of Formulaic Utterances with How about During Second Language Discussion Tasks
Dr. Yuri Hosoda and Dr. David Aline
Kanagawa University

This conversation analytic study examines second language (L2) learners' use of formulaic utterances initiated with How about during discussion tasks in university English classes in Japan. It elucidates various ways learners use formulaic utterances and considers how students work to learn them in small group tasks. How about commonly occurs in English as a formulaic utterance used for making suggestions and is one of the most frequent formulas Japanese learners of English use. Studies analyzing L2 interaction noted the use of How about for redirecting topics to other speakers (Hauser, 2009; Potter & Greer, 2008). We expand this research by examining L2 learners' use of How about during discussions for language learning. Considered were over 210 hours of video-recorded second language interaction collected during classroom oral discussion tasks, which required consensus on various controversial topics. Analysis found learners use How about for (a) explicitly selecting next speaker, (b) shifting topics, and (c) suggesting alternative procedures. All three occurred in the environment of the closing of a sequence of interrelated turns and were manifested through silence, broken speech, and downward gaze. This study demonstrates how L2 learners deploy formulaic utterances in discussion activities and considers how they acquire those formulas. 

Developing English Language Teaching Metaphorical Associative cards (ELTMAC)
Mr. Richard J. Stockton
BINUS School

​This is a report on action research that develops story cards for ELT based on Jungian archetypes, and empirical research demonstrating improvement in narrative writing versus textbook and PowerPoint taught groups. Improvement may be due to how ELTMAC games can benefit English language learning: Jungian researchers finding improved language memory in tests with archetypal metaphorical associative cards is corroborated. The cards are scalable to learner level; the 59 cards can be named with the most common English words. Recent MRI studies support Jung’s claim that archetypes are universal neural structures; ELTMAC therefore transcends intercultural boundaries and accesses language parts of the brain. The cards are based on fairytale, i.e. European folklore; as both English and fairytales originating in the Bronze Age Indo-European dispersal, the game imparts cultural competence via Whorfian synergy. Story helps us understand ourselves; hence ELTMAC develops L2 identity. Fairytale confronts the realities of life, allowing meaningfulness to reemerge in ELT classrooms where commercial or social-political forces are censoring it. And, narrative card games are adaptable to broad uses.


Enhancing Community - A Global Peace Education Project
Erina Hunt
Otago University

Erina presents an example of an holistic peace education project, demonstrating how a team-teaching partnership, within a collaborative, learner-centered ESOL program, was able to draw on the background knowledge and experience of all participating partners (teachers and students alike) to develop greater awareness of the common human aspiration for peace in today’s world, and build a stronger commitment to that goal. At the same time, it developed students’ language skills around the peace theme and simultaneously enhanced teachers’ professional development opportunities.  The initial project, while undertaken several years ago, has had a long-term impact on the local community in the form of regular peace events in the city. The project as described, demonstrates ways of learning and teaching that build strong language skills in authentic contexts, while developing an improved awareness of the teaching and learning process, enhancing motivation for all participants, and building a lasting awareness of contemporary peace issues.


English Language Education from the Lens of Critical Global Englishes
Dr. Fan Fang
Shantou University

The global spread of English as a global language has provoked various issues and debates on how English should be viewed from a broader perspective. The proposal of Global Englishes (GE) has challenged the ownership of English as English is no longer solely used among its native speakers but more often among non-native speakers themselves. Their use of English, however, might not strictly follow the native norms and is therefore more diverse and fluid when people (re)negotiate meaning and (re)construct their identities through the process of intercultural communication. Instead of sticking to the entrenched native standard of English, this suggests English language education (ELE) move beyond the native speakerism zone and take the ‘critical global Englishes perspectives’ into account when language teachers and teacher educators design and implement English language policy and curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment. With this background in mind, in this talk, I will address some issues proposed in the edited volume I co-edited named Critical Perspectives on Global Englishes in Asia: Language Policy, Curriculum, Pedagogy and Assessment (Fang & Widodo, 2019) with a focus on pedagogy and assessment in the 21st century from a critical GE perspective. From the key arguments of this volume, I will summarise the research trend of GE and provide some fresh insight into the ELE territory for both language researchers and practitioners. I will end my talk with an argument that the ELE should be critically implemented from multilingual and translanguaging practices from the GE paradigm.


English Language Teaching in Qawmi Girls’ Madrasas in Bangladesh: Problems, Challenges and Prospects​
Ms. Tasnia Mizan Chowdhury
Leading University, Sylhet, Bangladesh

The research aims at identifying the problems, challenges, and prospects of English language teaching practice in girls’ Madrasas. For the purpose of the investigation 5 Qawmi Madrasas for girls had been selected in Sylhet, Bangladesh. The Qawmi Madrasas have larger student base and more conservative curriculum than Alia Madrasa. Interviews of both teachers and students have been conducted with separate questionnaires to collect the necessary data that was analyzed using an inductive method. Based on the collected data, this paper presents a guideline for improving teaching practice in the girls’ Madrasas that can benefit the teachers, students as well as the policy makers.


English Proficiency of the English Language Teachers of the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Dr. Janet A. Arcana
University of Southern Philippines Foundation

Recently published researches and articles reveal the declining English proficiency of the graduates in the Philippines which is found to be lower than that of its neighboring ASEAN countries of which poorly trained teachers are partly blamed. This study explored the English proficiency of the Education students who are expected to teach English in this era of robotics, virtual reality and artificial intelligence. Through a qualitative content analysis employing deductive coding, eight researches from 2016- 2018 were reviewed and studied. Findings revealed that both in written text and use of technological device, the Education students need to improve their listening, reading, speaking and writing proficiency. They need to master the rules of vocabulary in information processing activities, develop their sub skills to build comprehension activities by using graphic organizers, improve the ability to compare ideas orally, and master the grammar acquisition and translation methods in order to construct sentences with the correct verbs. Although in some aspect, they excelled in their vocabulary and have reached the derivational constancy stage in spelling, they still have difficulty in identifying misspelled words, writing the correct spelling, and finding acceptable ways to spell. This imply the necessity for intensive remedial activities using appropriate technology.

 

Enhancing Reading Comprehension Skills of Grade III Learners Through Project “HELP” Program
Ms. Armela Madayag, Principal 1
Department of Education, La Union District

The study focused on the reading comprehension skills of the Grade III learners in Pugo Elementary School. The study looked into the reading comprehension skills profile of the respondents along Decoding, Fluency, Vocabulary, Sentence Construction, Reasoning, and Working Memory. The descriptive method of research was used in this study, and documentary analysis was utilized in gathering the needed data for the reading profile of the respondents. Based on the data gathered, the following were the salient findings of the study. The reading comprehension skills profile of the respondents is Instructional. Decoding, Fluency, Vocabulary, were discovered as the respondents’ strengths while Sentence Construction, Reasoning, and Working Memory were discovered as their weaknesses. The project “HELP” program was developed to address the identified weaknesses of the respondents. Objectives of the Project “HELP” were to conduct a periodic assessment and evaluation of learners reading levels; To construct instructional materials and learning packages; to employ corrective measures to any discovered reading difficulty; to provide effective, individualized and group instruction to non-readers and learners who exhibit reading problems; to conduct conferences with regular classroom teachers and help them accommodate learners who show reading problems; and to develop positive reading attitude among learners.

 
Enhanced Remedial Reading Instruction and Catch-Up Reading Program In English for Less Skilled Readers of Padang Primary School
Ms. Brenda Dela Pena
Department of Education, La Union District

One of the concerns of Padang Primary School is the lack of mastery in basic reading skills in English of less skilled readers. For the past years, there were a lot of less skilled readers in English from Grades One to Five levels. Among the reasons of having less skilled readers were: lack of supervision/guidance of parents and guardians, poor nutritional status, lack of interest to read English texts, lack of reading materials and the strategy used was boring or not appropriate to the level of the readers. To address this concern, the school is conducting several reading practices in English to develop, improve and enhance the basic reading skills in English of less skilled readers. One of the reading practices is the Enhanced Remedial Reading Instruction in English. This practice was usually done every 1:00-1:30 in the afternoon from Mondays to Fridays. The other reading practice is the Catch-Up Reading Program in English which is done twice a week, a two-hour session in April and May (summer vacation). The two reading practices of the school are intended for less skilled readers. The less skilled readers were identified through preliminary and posttests in Basic Reading in English. Several strategies, interactive equipment and manipulative materials are used to conduct the activities. These reading practices aim to reduce the number of less skilled readers and to improve their reading performance in English, Mathematics and Science.

 

Evaluating Google Classroom in Teaching and Learning Writing at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology
Ms. Tran Thi Mai
Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology

The Internet has evidently played a key role in this 4.0 Technology era. Recent years have witnessed the adoption of the Internet-based technology in language teaching and learning, bringing both unprecedented benefits and challenges to teachers and learners. Released in August 2014, Google Classroom is relatively new to many English teachers. This research aimed to introduce this technology to fellow teachers and evaluate its effects on teaching writing. Various studies into the same area were reviewed carefully before the research commenced. The research was designed using Post-test Only Experimental method. The writer taught TOEIC Writing to seniors at HCMC University of Technology, Vietnam in eight weeks. 63 seniors were randomly assigned into two classes. Without pre-test, the control group studied writing in a traditional way. The experimental group, additionally to physical classes, participated in a virtual class on Google Classroom. After eight weeks, both groups did a mock test of TOEIC Writing. The scores were analyzed using T-test, and a questionnaire was spread out. Also, some students participated in interviews about the effects of Google Classroom. Regarding the findings, the experimental group had higher average points in their writing test compared to the control group although the difference was not remarkably big. However, questionnaires and interviews showed that students’ eagerness in Writing improved noticeably with the support of Google Classroom. Therefore, these findings are hoped to contribute to modern teaching and learning.

 

Face validity study using the C-test with free descriptions of test takers with use of text mining
Mr. Satoshi Kurokawa
The University of Tokyo, MA student

 
Previous studies have found that the C-test lacks face validity (Spolsky, 1985). While some researchers have investigated the face validity of the C-test using quantitative data, few have investigated what appears to be measured in the C-test from the free descriptions of test takers. Text mining for free descriptions would likely contribute to unearthing a new perspective for the analysis of the face validity of the C-test. 106 Japanese university students participated in this study. After the participants completed the C-test, they were asked to describe what they thought it measured. The assessment of the face validity of the test was expected to vary depending on the learner’s proficiency. The participants were thus divided into high- and low-proficiency groups in relation to their C-test scores, and then the results for each group were analyzed using a co-occurrence network that was intended to determine notable key words from the participants’ free description. The findings indicated that low-scoring participants appeared to believe that verb tenses were being tested, and high-scoring participants appear to believe that spelling accuracy was being assessed. The tense of verbs and spelling accuracy should be considered in further study of the face validity of the C-test.


Genre-Based Approach: Write Without Fear
Ms. Oksana Kharlay
Macau University of Science and Technology

Nowadays some may consider the act of writing a tedious endeavour, especially teenage learners brought up in a digital age. This could be due to several reasons: perhaps they had limited writing practice in their first language; or maybe they think they do not have anything to say or cannot come up with new ideas; or possibly, because of limited writing practice activities in the classroom. Writing also takes up valuable classroom time and after-class teacher’s time. The workshop will introduce a genre-based approach in teaching writing by turning it into an engaging and motivating activity. The aim is to help learners to identify and analyse global (context, purpose, participants, appearance, organisation) and local features of the genre in order to “equip them to better tackle authentic real world writing tasks” (Hyland 2003). Workshop participants will also have the opportunity of discussing differences between two approaches to writing - genre-based and more ‘traditional’ product - and share positives and negatives of their use in classroom.


Integrating English into Refugee Employment Programs in Australia - A practice-based example of how DiversityWorks!
Carmen Garcia
CEO and Managing Director, Community Corporate, Australia

English language acquisition among migrants and refugees in Australia continues to be a critical challenge for genuine workforce participation. The federal government estimated in June 2017, there were 299,400 working age Australians from migrant and refugee backgrounds on income support payments. With government claiming data trends show that refugees who do not secure employment in the first 24 months after arrival in Australia are 60% more likely to remain on welfare for the rest of their lives. Community Corporate a national award-winning specialist diversity and inclusion company has developed and trialled an innovative model that focuses on an industry-led approach in vocational language acquisition. The techniques and methodology applied through the Diversity Works! model support competency-based pre-employment training to build vocational language acquisition for accelerating engagement in the Australian workforce for migrants and refugees. This paper presents the success features of the model, including the focus on language and literacy that has resulted in increased opportunities, access and retention of migrant and refugee job seekers into work in Australia. This practice-based example boasts a 96% national conversion rate into job outcomes, and retention rates at 90% after 12 months in work through partnerships with some of Australia’s leading employers.

 
Integration of Memes in Contextualizing the Development of Communicative Competence of Grade 11 STEM Students
Maribel L. Capitle and Renzy Cerwin F. Calasin
Colegio de San Juan de Letran Intramuros, Manila

This study was conducted to assess the development of the contextualization of Communicative Competence of the Grade 11 students of Colegio de San Juan de Letran on the use of Internet Memes in the classroom teaching which utilized Stephen Krashen's Affective Filter as a theoretical underpinning. A 50-item validated pretest and posttest were the primary sources in determining the development of the communicative competence of the 50 students in the four components of Communicative Competence namely; Grammatical or Linguistic Competence, Discourse Competence, Sociolinguistic Competence and Strategic Competence. Based on learning gains, a prominent and significant development took place relative to the test scores of the students in the experimental group as compared to the control group. It is highly recommended therefore, to utilize memes in classroom teaching to bring forth authentic learning and promising results. Conclusively, it is advised that curriculum developers look into this study, to be able to get valuable ideas on how to engage students more in the classroom discussions.

 
Introducing Literacy to Young Learners of English
Ms. Hiroko Arao and Ms. Maiko Kimura
Mie University and Mukogawa Women’s University

Teaching English will officially start in elementary school in Japan in 2020. Pupils in 5th and 6th grade will learn four skills in English: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Among them, reading and writing English are going to be a big challenge for children who are phonologically advantaged in language learning. Teachers need to choose and try the effective ways to develop literacy through their lesson and learning environment. This study discusses the features of literacy development of young learners of English and explores various ways to introduce and promote literacy.

 
Improving Reading Level of Grade School Learners through Phonetic Approach
Ms. Rosemarie Rillera
Naguillan National High School

This research was conducted to improve the reading level of the selected Grade VII learners through phonetic approach and consequently enhancing their academic performances. The Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (PHIL-IRI) assessment of the school year 2017-2018 renders four non-reader grade 7 learners. The researchers opted to teach in a systematic phonetic approach with strategies such as coded-based and word skill-recognition to meet the basic reading needs of the learners. Pre-test and Post-test data for this study was interpreted using the PHIL-IRI. Reading level is categorized as Frustration, Instructional, and Independent. The significant difference was analyzed using t-test. The significant experiences were saturated from the responses of the participants after implementing the phonetic approach. The results show that there is a significant difference of the reading level of the selected grade 7 students before and after using phonetic approach. This means that phonetic approach was effective in improving the reading level of the learners.

 
Learning to Read in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Course with Metacognitive Reading Strategies: Does this work?
Ms. Napapat Thongwichit
Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus

This quasi-experimental research was aimed at exploring students’ reading comprehension progress after receiving metacognitive reading strategies instruction through modeling. The study evaluated if there was a difference between their pretest and posttest scores among 47 student participants who registered for English for Tourism course. The data were collected from January to February, 2018 by using a pretest-posttest design which the scores were measured before and after the treatment was implemented. The research results found that the students’ posttest scores were proven to have a statistically significant difference compared to their pretest scores before participating in metacognitive reading strategies lessons (p < .05). Therefore, this study supported that metacognitive reading strategies should be integrated into classrooms: not only for English reading courses, but also any English courses that have reading activities within their lessons particularly English for Specific Purposes (ESP) courses. Metacognitive reading strategies based lessons unquestionably were verified to make students develop into more strategic and better readers with reading comprehension achievement.


MSS TeenTalk 2018: an Alternative Assessment to Develop a Confident and Effective Communicator
Mdm Dian Khairyani Binte Mondzi  Mdm Elisha Tushara
Marsiling Secondary School

This case study looks into how alternative assessment, being compatible with the constructivist theory (Estrin, 1993), can impact both teacher pedagogy and student learning through the groundbreaking implementation of MSS Teen Talk 2018. Quantitative and qualitative survey questions were conducted on all the Secondary 3 English Language teachers and also, students from the Secondary 3 cohort. The framework for analysis was based on an adapted version of Janisch, Liu and Akrof’s (2007) alternative assessment and also, Cey’s (2001) constructivist classrooms. As a result of carrying out this research design, it demonstrated how apparent active learning by the student really was. With the wealth of information, the teacher, as a facilitator, engaged the student in conversation so as to ensure that the meaning the latter creates was aligned with what the teacher had in mind (Vygotsky, 1978). Being innovative in the way that it provided students with a platform to share about an issue that means a lot to them, only further emphasised the authentic nature of the project. As students also developed 21st century competencies such as self-directedness and confidence through facilitation by the teacher, this paved the way for the project team to consider looking into assessing 21st CC.


On Judgement of Appropriateness of English Expression Concerning Disabilities
Dr. Yamaguchi Kazuyuki
Nippon Sport Science University

The aim of this paper is to suggest how to use English expressions concerning physical and mental disabilities in appropriate manners. The English education in Japan has put an emphasis on its grammar and reading, and almost neglected how the language should be used appropriately in actual conversation, so that Japanese English learners have not been educated to judge correctly how one expression of disability differs from other similar expressions. For example, Japanese English education has been very little help for the judgement of appropriateness between ‘disabled people’ and ‘the disabled’, between ‘living with’ and ‘suffer from’. We first show some reasons why this is indeed problematic for Japanese English learners. And then we will argue that the approach of the previous studies of Cognitive Linguistics is helpful for acquisition of the intuition based on which s/he can use expressions of disability appropriately and can judge whether the expressions in question would be appropriate or not. For this purpose, we argue that identification of the right cognitive models among many are necessary. We conclude that Social Model is the best one in terms of explanation of the language uses in question.


On Teaching Speaking: Students in Focus
Dr. Rowena Vasquez-Sosas
University of Southern Mindanao, Philippines

​This study investigated the approach of teaching speaking to students taking English as major subject in the University of Southern Mindanao, Kidapawan City Campus, Philippines. Specifically, it sought to answer how the approach was employed; how the approach helped students enhance their speaking competency; and what suggestions they could shed to improve the approach. Narratological approach was used through three (3) Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with seven (7) members each. Results revealed that teachers used Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in teaching speaking and that they used task-based instructions and authentic tasks for students to practice speech fluency and accuracy. These activities are usually done in real life like short interview, casual talk, online conversation and reading passages and speeches. More so it was found that communicative language teaching would have favourable results if contextualization and first hand experiences of learners are considered.


Oral and Silent Reading in English (Philippine Informal Reading Inventory) for Grades Two to Six Learners in Lacong Elementary School-Annex
Mrs. Mary Grace T. Guinomma
Department of Education, Lacong Elementary School-Annex

Philippine Informal Reading Inventory or PHIL IRI is an informal reading inventory composed of graded passages designed to determine the individual student’s performance in oral reading, silent reading and listening comprehension. One of the concerns of Lacong Elementary School-Annex is the ability of learners to read both in oral and silent reading in English. As a continuous support to the Developmental Reading Intervention Program, the school is strictly implementing, monitoring and evaluating the reading performance of learners in oral and silent reading in English. The school supports the conduct of the PHIL IRI preliminary and posttests-oral and silent reading in English. At the end of the month of June, the preliminary test is conducted to assess the reading level of the learners-whether they were identified as frustration, instructional or independent readers. For oral reading test, the number of miscues is identified and number of correct answers to the questions about the story read is computed. For silent reading test, the readers are assessed on how much time in seconds they spent in reading and number of correct answers to the questions is also computed. After conducting these activities in the preliminary tests, the posttests are also conducted in the second week of March. The same activities are conducted to identify the reading level of the learners either they improved after a series of reading activities or not from July to February. There were selected passages used in oral and silent reading, questions to answer, formula in computing and scale to identify the reading level of the learners and template for the consolidation of reading report. The PHIL IRI reports are submitted to the District Office for another consolidation until proper actions would be given to the schools with readers under frustration level. The school also holds reading activity to address the concern of having poor readers.

 
Playing with Words: Apps to Enhance Vocabulary Retention
Christopher Freeman
Gulf University of Science and Technology

As we are midway through the second decade of the twenty-first century, the use of digital technology is becoming ubiquitous throughout multiple locations and cultures. With all the technology comes a plethora of programs, apps and tools that are available, particularly in the area of vocabulary in the classroom. English Language Learners, from primary to tertiary, all exercise and use vocabulary in a variety of contexts. In this workshop, we will demonstrate, set-up, and most importantly use three technology-based apps and programs to be used by students. First is "Quizlet”, an all-in-one vocabulary app which allows students and teachers to take advantage of six discreet study modes to assist in memorizing essential long- term vocabulary words, including a live version that allows students to compete with one another in groups. The second program is “Memrise,” which is web-based, but also has a mobile app for students and teachers to use. This app has a variety of vocabulary word sets use, from SAT questions to the IELTS to Cambridge English ESL books. It uses mems, which are mnemonics, etymologies, videos, photos, or anything that helps connect the word to the brain. The final app is called “The Challenge,” a web-based vocabulary program that is based on the most useful words from a 1.6 billion word corpus. It challenges students to learn new words by earning points and achievements, and reviews words with which they struggle or need hints.


Reading Comprehension of English Major Students: A Perspective Analysis
Dr. Helmer Montejo
Talisay City College

This research aims to know the level of comprehension of the students through reading. Driven by the result of a previous institutional research conducted in Talisay City College and directed towards graduated senior high school students where more than 50% from each cluster of students from the top 5 feeder schools are below average in both verbal comprehension and verbal reasoning, the researcher would like to know if the reading comprehension test yields the same result. Most of the respondents were average in almost all reading skills and they only differ in three areas namely background knowledge, sequencing event, and self-questioning.  Students in section A were excellent in using their prior knowledge. However, they were found poor in arranging the events chronologically. On the other hand, section B was excellent in self-questioning skills.  Even so, the Z-test result showed that there was only one skill that made a significant difference among the two groups.  Program R.E.A.D.Y. or Reading Enhancement Activity and Development for the Youth is developed and proposed for implementation. Reading is a multifaceted process that develops only with practice. Having excellent reading Comprehension skills is crucial. It increases  the enjoyment and effectiveness of reading and helps not only academically, but professionally, and in a person's personal life. 

 
SM - 3T Program and EFL Teacher's Quality: Opportunities and Challenges
Ms. Santri E. P. Djahimo
Nusa Cendana University

This is a qualitative study aims at finding out whether or not Indonesian Government Program named SM-3T (Sarjana Mendidik di Daerah Terdepan, Terluar dan Tertinggal) is effective to improve Indonesian EFL teachers’ quality. This SM-3T Program is a program designed by Indonesian Government for fresh graduates to teach English for a year in the Frontier, Outermost, and Disadvantaged Areas throughout Indonesia. Additionally, it also seeks to reveal and identify their difficulties they have encountered when they were teaching in those areas and how those challenges could be turned out to be good opportunities for their future teaching career. The selected informants are 10 SM-3T teachers who have been back from their teaching areas. Questionnaire and interview have been used as the instruments for data collection. The results reveal that these teachers faced many various physical, mental and cultural challenges during their teaching period. They had to struggle to be able to adapt with the local culture to survive. However, they admit that those challenges have changed their perceptions about the importance of education in general and the need to urgently improve themselves in EFL teaching in particular.


Social Media Posts: An Easy Practice of Writing
Ms. Irmawati
Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang

The present technology changes fast as fast as we step on, so integrating technology in learning and teaching activities is one of the easiest ways to attract the students’ activeness since they spend a lot of time surfing internet. In reality, everyone posts to her/his social media more than one post in a day. This study uses facebook to observe the students’ writing through their posts. The qualitative descriptive method is used to interprate the data result which is gained from observing, assessing, and interviewing. Observing is related to the number of students’ posts, assessing is concerned to their writing, and interviewing is a kind of enforcement data on how social media facilitates writing practice easily. The students’ facebook timeline, who involve in this study is observed for a month. As the result, they realized that a lot of practice will make you easy to do it, as well as writing practice through social media. Evidently, their writing is better on structural grammar and their vocabulary increases automatically.


Strategies for Intercultural Understanding and Learning Mindsets
Ms. Beata Mirecka-Jakubowska
Jakarta Intercultural School

When students learn a language, they’re also learning a culture, developing their intercultural communicative competence. But many students will never leave their own country or even city or village. Yet, they crave the opportunity to interact and collaborate, to familiarize themselves with their own age group from other cultures. Why is this so important these days when we’re all “connected” through the internet? Because foremost, teens and young people, age-appropriately, want to learn about themselves. Their own self-exploration leads them to comparison with others, which may result in self-judgment, feeling overconfident or, more often, inferior. With their lives exposed on Social Media, students struggle with their online/offline identity, which, in turn, affects their language learning. This workshop will equip teachers with powerful strategies to help students build an inquisitive, resilient and reflective learning mindset. Effective modern learning tools and technology will be discussed to support students in developing a growth mindset, while also enhancing their interaction and collaboration skills. With the shared teaching strategies, teachers will successfully assist students in developing written and oral communication, empower them with choice and voice, and also build their grit to persevere when facing challenges.


Students' Oral Practice on Second Life Virtual World
Mrs. Hoang Linh Chi
University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University

This action research study examined students’ oral participation in speaking activities conducted on Second Life Virtual World. Participants include 19 first-year students whose level of English proficiency ranging from Upper intermediate to Advanced. Over the period of five weeks, the participants were scheduled to practice their speaking skills on Second Life in different group sizes, undertaking various activities such as discussion, individual sharing or going on field trips, etc. Three instruments namely students’ journal, group interview, and individual interview were adopted as data collection methods. The research findings indicated a moderate to high level of engagement with a majority of participants reporting increased willingness to orally express their opinions thanks to the friendly, stress-free atmosphere of Second Life. Shy students were revealed to have benefited most from oral practice in the 3D environment thanks to the absence of non-verbal reactions. However, technical issues encountered by participants during the implementation of this innovation were revealed to be overwhelming and adversely affected participants’ engagement. For future implementation of this innovation, small class size, better technical guidance and use of small group discussion/ sharing, pronunciation practice and virtual field trips as main activities were suggested.

 

The Efficacy of Using Picture Strategy in Teaching Writing Skill of Procedure Text to Indonesian EFL Students
Shanty Halim
Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang

​This research was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of using picture in teaching procedure text for improving writing skill to Indonesian EFL students. This research was conducted at the second semester of Building Construction Engineering Study Program of Civil Engineering department of SPUP (State Polytechnic of Ujung Pandang). The total number of samples were 20 students in academic year 2018/2019. The research design used was classroom action research which comprised into 5 procedures they are reconnaissance, planning, acting, reflecting and revising plan. These procedures then were implemented in 3 cycles. The first cycle is used as pretest showed that the result of writing skill was still low. Next, the action classroom research was then conducted by using picture strategy in teaching procedure text for improving the students writing skill in two planned cycles to gain the data of progress and posttest. The findings showed that using picture strategy is effective for improving students writing skill of procedure text. It is supported by the result of the post test for each cycle apparently revealed that there was significant improvement of the subjects’ procedure text paragraph of writing skill. Therefore, the use of Picture Strategy in improving students writing procedure text to Indonesian EFL Students is recommended.

 
The Effectiveness of Adopt A Child Reading Program Among Grade Six Pupils of Tupi South District
Pablo Eulatic, LPT, RN
Tupi South District, Division of South Cotabato
 
Team teaching refers to a teaching method performed by a group of instructors usually between 2 to 4 or 5 to teach the same group of students, but this particular research focuses on a TT being gradually implemented in Japanese elementary schools, where TEES will officially start in 2020 as a part of an ongoing education reform. At elementary schools, all subjects with only occasional exceptions are taught by classroom or ‘homeroom’ teachers as most commonly referred to in Japan. The teachers are trained and qualified for teaching subjects, managing a classroom, and looking after children’s welfare while at school, but teaching English has never been their requirement. Usually a foreign language teacher is assigned to a specific language subject, but it has been limited to middle school and upward. However, the reform urges the classroom teachers to teach English. So, to overcome challenges inflicted to unskilled, under trained elementary school classroom teachers, a TT with native speakers of English or trained Japanese teachers of English is suggested and introduced. This presentation will report the efficacy of TT viewed from the classroom teachers’ side, based on the findings from questionnaires and interviews. 


The Education Students’ Proficiency in Making Graphic Organizers and their Reading Comprehension in English
Ms. Abigail Marie P. Obierez
University of Southern Philippines Foundation

A graphic organizer is a visual imagery and an effective teaching tool in the 21st century to facilitate reading comprehension in the narrative and expository texts. In this study the Education students’ level of proficiency in making graphic organizers in the aspects of coherence, consistency and creativity were correlated with the student’s reading comprehension level in English when using graphic organizers and without using graphic organizers. The researchers utilized the descriptive correlation method. Reading passages which were adopted from the TOEFL standardized test were used as tools to measure the reading comprehension. The findings revealed that the Education students were slightly proficient in making graphic organizers. Furthermore, the students were very proficient in their reading comprehension level when they use graphic organizers, and were proficient when they do not use graphic organizers, hence a significant difference was noted. Moreover, a significant relationship was seen between the students’ proficiency in making graphic organizers and their level of reading comprehension. Therefore, the students comprehend better when using graphic organizers, and that their proficiency in making graphic organizers has affected their level of reading comprehension.


Three add-ons: Best Practices in the Classroom
Ms. Aprellene Marquez, Department of Education, La Union District
Mr. Cezar Estillore III, Department of Education, La Union District
Ms. Loraine Carmel Agustin, Department of Education, La Union District
Ms. Ma. Lourdes Pulanco, Department of Education, La Union District

These best practices in the classroom were implemented among the learners of Quinavite Elementary School and Eulogio Clarence Martin De Guzman Jr. Elementary School.  The three add-ons used in teaching learning process were PICTURE BLOCKS, WORD BLOCKS and SENTENCE BUILDING BLOCKS. Through this, learners increased their picture awareness; enriched vocabulary development and enhanced their writing skills. Interactive learning has been gradually stimulated because learners became active and motivated with these activities; where they experienced a more environment friendly and enjoyable atmosphere of a class-home.



The Efficacy of Team Teaching in TEES (Teaching English at Elementary Schools) in Japan
Prof. Keiko Yamauchi
Kobe Shoin Women's University

Team teaching refers to a teaching method performed by a group of instructors usually between 2 to 4 or 5 to teach the same group of students, but this particular research focuses on a TT being gradually implemented in Japanese elementary schools, where TEES will officially start in 2020 as a part of an ongoing education reform.  At elementary schools, all subjects with only occasional exceptions are taught by classroom or ‘homeroom’ teachers as most commonly referred to in Japan. The teachers are trained and qualified for teaching subjects, managing a classroom, and looking after children’s welfare while at school, but teaching English has never been their requirement. Usually a foreign language teacher is assigned to a specific language subject, but it has been limited to middle school and upward. However, the reform urges the classroom teachers to teach English. So, to overcome challenges inflicted to unskilled, undertrained elementary school classroom teachers, a TT with native speakers of English or trained Japanese teachers of English is suggested and introduced. This presentation will report the efficacy of TT viewed from the classroom teachers’ side, based on the findings from questionnaires and interviews.



Teachers Training: Empowering Teachers in the Methodologies in Teaching English
Ms. Cindy Sumao-I
Department of Education, Division of La Union

Teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community. The professionals who engage in this activity are called teacher educators. Too little attention has been paid to what actually goes on in the classroom. Many teachers were recruited to facilitate students’ access to the education system. These recruitments result in the presence of a relatively high number of untrained teachers and few teachers having benefited from pre-service training.  The respondents are the teachers in English of Antonino Memorial Elementary School from Grade 1 to Grade VI.  The activities to be undertaken are the following: 1. The Art of Questioning. The teachers ask questions in order to teach, the student replies, and repeats in order to learn. The teacher talks all the time, the student listens, replies and learns. It is mainly a question of lessons based on dialogue. The questions asked are closed-ended and factual and require the expected answer. 2 & 3 Delivery of the Lesson. It is important to realize that the best planned lesson is worthless if interesting delivery procedures, along with good classroom management techniques, are not in evidence.  4. Use of Instructional Materials any resource a teacher uses to help him teach his students is an instructional material. There are many types of instructional materials.


Teacher Awareness on Environmental Issues and Integration Practices: Basis for an Environmental Education Program
Mr. Joseph Dagupan, T1
Department of Education, Lagao Central Elementary School Division of General Santos City

The purpose of this study is to develop Environmental practices of Education program for Lagao North District, General Santos City. The researcher decided to adapt the questionnaires from Lagao Barangay Development Plan 2015 - 2020. Based on the results of the study the following were the findings. As evaluated by the teachers, their level of awareness is high with regards to population issues, resources issues and pollution issues. Teachers have High Level of awareness regarding the environment particularly about population issues, resources issues, and pollution issues. Environmental issues are often integrated by the teachers when teaching English, Science, and Mathematics, Integration of environmental issues when discussing Science, Mathematics, and English leads to greater awareness about the environment. Based on the results of the study the Proposed Environmental Education Program was developed to address the environmental issues of Barangay Lagao, General Santos City. This will be a basis for planning on how to resolve some environmental issues. School curriculum should provide for the inclusion of environmental issues when discussing different academic subjects such as Mathematics, English, and Science. Teachers should be well informed and knowledgeable about environment issues so that they can impart them to the pupils.


Teachers’ beliefs and principles behind listening instruction in Iranian private English schools
Mr. Morteza Bagheri Sangachin
University of Auckland

Although there has been growth in recent years in the number of studies related to teacher cognition in teaching other skills such as writing, reading, and sub skills such as grammar, relatively little research and scholarly interest have been directed to the skill of listening. This study therefore aims to investigate teachers’ cognition underpinning listening classroom practices in private English institutes in Iran. In order to gain a more comprehensive image of the complex nature of teacher cognition, this study adopted a mixed method research design at stages of data collection and data analysis. Phase one, based on questionnaire data from 72 experienced teachers, explored teachers’ beliefs and principles. In phase two, drawing largely on data from observations and stimulated-recall interviews, eight teachers were observed 64 times and 32 interviews were conducted. Observations and stimulated-recall interviews were transcribed and coded. Results revealed that teachers stated 11 justifications underpinning their classroom practices. The most frequently cited cognitions were relevant to the procedures followed to ensure comprehension and make students more engaged. Using listening to improve other skills, helping students to complete the task, and activating background knowledge were other justifications.

 
Utilizing the Google Classroom App as a Way to Begin Blended Learning
Ms. Amy Bohman
English Language Fellow, U.S. Department of State, Kandal Regional Teacher Training Center in Cambodia

Many regions in Asia are working hard to keep up with technological advancements both in and outside of the classroom. In order to catch up with more progressive learning practices, students and teachers are trying to find quicker ways to adapt with limited resources. One way to do this is by creating equal opportunities to learn with technology based tools through the use of mobile phones. Computers are not regularly available for all students to use, but most student have or will have access to a mobile phone in the near future. Apps can provide a way to share information, collect feedback, or assessments from students. Since Google Classroom is a free application, it is easy for students to download and for instructors to make it part of their courses. It is also a great way to begin developing blending learning. Therefore, examining how to implement the Google Classroom app, will also demonstrate the benefits of utilizing blended learning in this workshop. 

 
Word Clouds as a Strategy to Improve Reading Comprehension: A Case Study in a Selected Chinese-medium School in Malaysia
Mr. Sean Chen Tieu
School of Education, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus

This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of using word clouds as a strategy to improve ESL learners’ reading comprehension. 134 Year 4 ESL students from a suburban Chinese-medium primary school in Johor, Malaysia were the participants of the study. This study applied mixed methods research. In this research, participants were divided into two control and treatment groups. In addition, pre-test and post-test, interviews, feedback, and observations were used to collect data. There was a significant improvement in both vocabulary and reading comprehension scores based on the data obtained for the treatment groups. The results of the study also consistent with the results of previous studies on graphical organizers. Besides, the findings also revealed that visuals and colours play an important role in helping students in remembering all the words. Likewise, students’ feedback showed that personalisation is important in learning as it enables learners to develop their own learning capacity. Since, word cloud is an emergent study, more studies need to be done to help to develop word cloud into an establish tool for language teaching in the future